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Quantitative Precipitation Forecast (QPF) Discussion
 
(Latest Discussion - Issued 2256Z Aug 28, 2015)
 
Version Selection
Versions back from latest:  0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10   
 
Abbreviations and acronyms used in this product
 
Geographic Boundaries -  Map 1: Color  Black/White       Map 2: Color  Black/White


QUANTITATIVE PRECIPITATION FORECAST DISCUSSION
NWS WEATHER PREDICTION CENTER COLLEGE PARK MD
656 PM EDT FRI AUG 28 2015


FINAL DAY 1...DAY 2 AND DAY 3 QPF DISCUSSION
VALID AUG 29/0000 UTC THRU SEP 01/0000 UTC
REFERENCE AWIPS GRAPHICS UNDER...PRECIP ACCUM - 24HR




...MIDWEST/GREAT LAKES...

A SHORT LIFTING FROM THE MIDWEST ACROSS THE GREAT LAKES INTERACTS
WITH DEEP MOISTURE AND MARGINAL INSTABILITY TO PRODUCE HEAVY TO
LOCALLY EXCESSIVE RAINFALL FROM EASTERN IA INTO SOUTHERN WI. THE
12Z NAM APPEARS TO BE A BIT TOO FAST AND WEAK WITH THE SHORT
WAVE...AND THE 00Z ECMWF MAY BE TOO STRONG. THE WPC QPF WAS BASED
ON A BLEND OF THE 12Z GFS/CONTINUITY...AND SOME OF THE DETAILS OF
THE QPF MAXIMUM WERE BASED ON THE 12Z REGIONAL GEM.

CONVECTION IS REFIRING ON THE BACK SIDE OF THE WEAKENING MCS
CROSSING EASTERN IA THIS AFTERNOON...AND BACKBUILDING OCCURS AS
THE LOW LEVEL INFLOW PERSISTS. THE BEST COMBINATION OF LOW LEVEL
INFLOW (IN THE FORM OF A 30 TO 40 KNOT LOW LEVEL SOUTH SOUTHWEST
FLOW) AND SYNOPTIC SCALE LIFT (ASSOCIATED WITH A STRONG SHORT WAVE
CROSSING CENTRAL IA) SHOULD OCCUR THROUGH 29/06Z...AND THE LATEST
NAM SIMULATED SATELLITE IMAGERY SHOWED THE NEWLY FORMING
CONVECTIVE CLUSTER/MCS PEAKING OVER EASTERN IA INTO NORTHERN
IL/SOUTHERN WI IN THE 29/00Z THROUGH 29/06Z TIME FRAME.

THE LOW LEVEL JET CONTINUES TO TRANSPORT 1.75 INCH PRECIPITABLE
WATER AIR INTO THE DEVELOPING CONVECTION...INCREASING THE THREAT
FOR HEAVY RAINFALL. HOWEVER...INSTABILITY MAY END UP BEING THE
LIMITING FACTOR FOR MORE WIDESPREAD HEAVY RAINFALL. MODEL
SOUNDINGS SUGGEST THAT INSTABILITY REMAINS RATHER MODEST...PEAKING
BEFORE 29/06Z. THIS COULD KEEP THE CONVECTIVE CLUSTER FAIRLY
SMALL...CLOSER TO THE MCS ITSELF THROUGH 29/12Z.

A SWATH OF 1.50 TO 2.00 INCHES OF QPF WAS PLACED ALONG THE
EXPECTED PATH OF THE CONVECTIVE CLUSTER/MCS. FOR THE MOST
PART...THE 12Z GLOBAL MODELS APPEAR TO STILL BE TOO FAR NORTH WITH
THE MAXIMUM QPF SWATH ACROSS CENTRAL WI INTO MI. TO THIS
POINT...THE CONVECTION HAS BEEN FURTHER SOUTH ACROSS IA INTO
SOUTHERN WI...CLOSER TO THE BETTER MOISTURE AND INSTABILITY AXES.
THIS BIAS HAS OCCURRED MUCH OF THE WARM SEASON ACROSS THE
MIDWEST/GREAT LAKES...AND THE MORE SOUTHERN MODELS WERE USED AS A
GUIDE FOR PLACEMENT OF THE HIGHEST QPF.

THREE HOUR FLASH FLOOD GUIDANCE VALUES ARE AS LOW AS 1.50 INCHES
ACROSS EASTERN IA...AND THE EARLIER HEAVY RAIN COULD ALLOW THESE
VALUES TO FALL. GIVEN THE DEEP MOISTURE IN PLACE (WHICH CONTINUES
TO BE REPLENISHED ON THE NOSE OF THE LOW LEVEL JET)...HIGH
RAINFALL RATES WITH DEVELOPING CONVECTION COULD BE ENOUGH TO
PRODUCE HIGH RAINFALL RATES AND LOCAL FLASH FLOODING. AN EXCESSIVE
AREA WAS RETAINED FOR CENTRAL/EASTERN IA/SOUTHERN WI AND NORTHERN
MI.

AS THE SHORT WAVE MOVES EAST DURING SAT...THE DEPTH OF MOISTURE
DECREASES AND INSTABILITY REMAINS A LIMITING FACTOR OVER THE
REMAINDER OF THE UPPER GREAT LAKES. A LARGE AREA OF 0.75 TO 1.25
INCHES WAS PLACED OVER THE WESTERN PORTION OF THE LP OF MI AS THE
SHORT WAVE CROSSES THE GREAT LAKES BEFORE EXITING INTO ONTARIO.


...SOUTHEAST/FL...

DEEP MOISTURE FOCUSED ALONG A FRONTAL BOUNDARY EXTENDING ACROSS
NORTHERN FL AND SOUTHEAST GA MAY PRODUCE LOCALLY HEAVY RAINFALL
ACROSS THIS AREA DURING DAY 1. THERE WAS GENERALLY GOOD MODEL
AGREEMENT CONCERNING THE POSITION OF A MID LEVEL TROUGH OVER THE
EASTERN GULF OF MEXICO....AND ITS RETROGRESSION SLOWLY WEST WITH
TIME. WITH THIS IN MIND...THE WPC QPF WAS BASED ON A BLEND OF THE
12Z GFS/00Z ECMWF...AND SOME OF THE HIGHER QPF DETAILS WERE BASED
ON THE 12Z REGIONAL GEM/12Z WRF ARW.

CONVECTION WILL FIRE ALONG THE CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN PORTIONS OF
THE PENINSULA...NEAR LOCAL SURFACE TROUGHS...AS WELL AS ALONG THE
FRONT EXTENDING ACROSS THE BEND BIG OF FL INTO SOUTHEAST GA.
PRECIPITABLE WATER VALUES BETWEEN 1.75 AND 2.00 INCHES AND
MARGINAL TO MODERATE INSTABILITY WILL ALLOW THE CONVECTION TO
PERSIST INTO THE LATE EVENING HOURS...ESPECIALLY ACROSS THE
WESTERN PANHANDLE OF FL. THE HIGHEST QPF AMOUNTS (NEAR 1.00 INCH)
WAS PLACED NEAR KPAM AND KAAF...WITH HIGHER AMOUNTS JUST OFFSHORE.
SOME OF THE 12Z HIGH RESOLUTION GUIDANCE (SUCH AS THE 12Z WRF
ARW/12Z REGIONAL GEM/12Z NAM CONEST) SUGGEST THE POTENTIAL FOR 4
INCHES OF RAINFALL HERE.

THERE IS SOME LOW LEVEL INFLOW (ABOUT 15 KNOTS OFF THE EASTERN
GULF) AHEAD OF THE FRONT AND MID LEVEL TROUGH COVERING THE EASTERN
GULF OF MEXICO...POINTING TO THE WESTERN FL PANHANDLE. AT THIS
POINT...THE THREAT DOES NOT APPEAR TO COVER ENOUGH AREA TO SUPPORT
A SLIGHT RISK OR SEE TEXT.  THE ACTIVITY REFIRES DURING THE DAY
SAT AS INSTABILITY IMPROVES...AGAIN CENTERED ON SURFACE
TROUGHS...SEA BREEZE FRONT...AND THE PERSISTENT FRONT EXTENDING
ACROSS NORTHERN FL INT SOUTHEAST GA.


...SOUTHWEST/SOUTHERN ROCKIES....

DEEP MONSOONAL MOISTURE...COMBINED WITH MARGINAL
INSTABILITY...WILL PRODUCE SCATTERED CONVECTION ACROSS THE
SOUTHWEST STATES AND THE SOUTHERN ROCKIES DURING DAY 1. THE
ACTIVITY SHOULD REMAIN SCATTERED...AS A MID LEVEL RIDGE IN PLACE
SHOULD SUPPRESS LARGE SCALE ASCENT FOR A MORE ORGANIZED HEAVY RAIN
THREAT. FOR THE MOST PART... THERE WAS GOOD SYNOPTIC SCALE
AGREEMENT CONCERNING THE OVERALL PATTERN...SO THE WPC QPF WAS
BASED ON A BLEND OF THE 12Z GFS/00Z ECMWF...AND THE 12Z REGIONAL
GEM/12Z WRF ARW WERE USED TO BETTER DELINEATE HIGHER TERRAIN QPF
MAXIMA. 

THE MID LEVEL RIDGE IN PLACE SUPPRESSES LARGE SCALE CONVECTION
ACROSS THE SOUTHWEST AND SOUTHERN ROCKIES... BUT THE COMBINATION
OF MONSOONAL MOISTURE (WHICH SHOWED UP WELL ON THE HIGH AND MID
LAYERED PRECIPITABLE WATER IMAGES) AND MARGINAL INSTABILITY WILL
ALLOW CONVECTION TO INITIATE. THE CONVECTION SHOULD BE INITIALLY
TIED TO THE TERRAIN OF NM AND PORTIONS OF AZ. AXES OF 0.10 TO 0.25
INCHES OF QPF WERE STRUNG ALONG THE TERRAIN OVER SOUTHEAST
AZ...EASTERN AND CENTRAL NM INTO SOUTHERN CO. THE MID LEVEL
RIDGING WOULD SUGGEST SLOW CELL MOVEMENT... AND HIGH PRECIPITABLE
WATER VALUES COULD RESULT IN LOCALLY HEAVY RAINFALL.
HOWEVER...WITHOUT A SIGNIFICANT TRIGGER...ORGANIZED FLASH FLOODING
IS NOT EXPECTED.


...PACIFIC NORTHWEST....

A DEEPENING LONG WAVE TROUGH APPROACHING THE PACIFIC NORTHWEST
WILL TAP DEEPENING MOISTURE...RESULTING IN HEAVY RAIN ACROSS THE
HIGHER TERRAIN DURING DAY 1. THERE WAS GENERALLY GOOD MODEL
AGREEMENT WITH THE POSITION OF THE LONG WAVE TROUGH...SO THE WPC
QPF WAS BASED ON A BLEND OF THE 12Z GFS/00Z ECMWF. THE 09Z SREF
MEAN WAS USED TO BETTER DELINEATE HIGHER TERRAIN QPF MAXIMA.

AHEAD OF THE LONG WAVE TROUGH APPROACHING THE PACIFIC
NORTHWEST...THE LAYERED PRECIPITABLE WATER IMAGES SHOWED A
MOISTURE CONNECTION FROM THE EAST CENTRAL PACIFIC...AND THIS
MOISTURE IS TAPPED DURING THE SECOND HALF OF THE PERIOD. A LOW
LEVEL 25 TO 35 KNOT SOUTH SOUTHWEST FLOW TRANSPORTS PRECIPITABLE
WATER VALUES NEAR 1.25 INCHES (WHICH IS BETWEEN TWO AND THREE
STANDARD DEVIATIONS ABOVE THE MEAN) TO THE WA/OR COASTS BETWEEN
29/12Z AND 29/18Z (DURING THE BEST LOW LEVEL MOISTURE FLUX). THE
LOW AND MID LEVEL FLOW IS NOT QUITE PERPENDICULAR TO THE THE
TERRAIN...SO WHILE THE FLOW IS UPSLOPE...IT IS NOT YET IDEAL.

A LONG AXIS OF 1.25 TO 1.75 INCHES WAS PLACED OVER THE THE
OLYMPICS IN WA AND THE COASTAL RANGE IN OR...AS WELL AS THE
CASCADES IN WA AND OR. THIS IS CLOSE TO A MULTI MODEL BLEND...AND
NEAR THE THREE HOUR FLASH FLOOD GUIDANCE. HOWEVER...THE QPF SHOULD
COME IN WAVES...AND NO DEEP CONVECTION IS EXPECTED...SO WHILE
LOCAL FLOOD ISSUES ARE POSSIBLE...ORGANIZED FLASH FLOODING IS NOT
EXPECTED.



DAYS 2/3...

...PACIFIC NORTHWEST TO THE NORTHERN ROCKIES...

A COMPLEX AND DEEPENING EARLY AUTUMNAL UPPER TROUGH COMPOSED OF
SEVERAL DISTINCT SHORT WAVES WILL BRING SIGNIFICANT PRECIPITATION
ON BOTH DAYS 2 TO 3/SATURDAY NIGHT TO MONDAY EVENING FOR WESTERN
WASHINGTON INTO WESTERN OREGON...WITH THE HEAVIEST QPF LOCATED
ACROSS THE OLYMPIC PENINSULA TO THE NORTHERN CASCADES.  ONE STRONG
TROUGH WILL CROSS THE WASHINGTON COAST ON SATURDAY NIGHT INTO
SUNDAY WHILE A BROAD AND COLDER TROUGH MOVES SOUTHWARD ALONG THE
BRITISH COLUMBIA COAST ON SUNDAY EVENING INTO MONDAY.  THE FIRST
TROUGH WILL YIELD RAIN FARTHER SOUTH THAN THE NEXT SYSTEM WITH QPF
AMOUNTS GREATER THAN .25 INCHES EXTENDING SOUTHWARD INTO WESTERN
OREGON.  MAXIMUM RAINFALL TOTALS ARE EXPECTED TO BE ON THE ORDER
OF 1 TO 1.5 INCHES IN THE NORTHERN CASCADES. A COMPROMISE SOLUTION
OF THE 12Z GFS/00Z ECMWF AND THE COMBINATION OF THE GEFS/ECMWF
ENSEMBLE MEANS WERE FOLLOWED TO GENERATE THE QPF GRAPHICS FOR THE
REGION.

...LOWER GREAT LAKES/OHIO VALLEY/CENTRAL APPALACHIANS...

A SLOW MOVING SHORTWAVE TROUGH MEANDERING ACROSS THE LOWER MIDWEST
AND OHIO VALLEY WILL CONTINUE TO GENERATE SOME SHOWERS AND A FEW
THUNDERSHOWERS ALTHOUGH PRECIPITATION RATES WILL LIKELY BE MUCH
LOWER THAN CURRENTLY OVER THE UPPER MISSISSIPPI VALLEY. UNLIKE THE
PACIFIC NORTHWEST...THE FORECAST IS BASED ON MORE OF A COMPOSITE
APPROACH SINCE THERE WAS LITTLE ACTUAL AGREEMENT AMONG THE
OPERATIONAL RUNS AND EVEN WITH THE ENSEMBLE MEANS.


...SOUTHEASTERN U.S...

AS STATED IN PREVIOUS DISCUSSIONS...THE QPF FORECASTS FOR THE
SOUTHEAST AND FLORIDA ARE EVEN MORE UNCERTAIN THAN PREVIOUSLY
DISCUSSED.  AN ELONGATED WEAK UPPER LEVEL TROUGH OVER THE
SOUTHEAST WITH SEVERAL WEAK BUT HARD TO DEFINE SHORTWAVE FEATURES
ARE EXPECTED TO INTERACT WITH WHATEVER HAPPENS TO TROPICAL STORM
ERIKA AND CERTAINLY THE THREAT FOR HEAVY RAINFALL IS THERE. 
PINPOINTING WHERE IS CURRENTLY VERY DIFFICULT TO SAY ESPECIALLY
SINCE ERIKA HAS NOT BEEN FOLLOWING ITS EXPECTED PATH AND ANY
INTERACTIONS WITH THE MOUNTAINS OF THE DOMINICAN REPUBLIC/HAITI
COULD INFLUENCE ITS STRENGTH AND MOVEMENT.  SO THE COMBINATION OF
UNCERTAINTY OF NOT ONLY PATH BUT ULTIMATE INTENSITY...OR LACK OF
IT...COMBINED WITH THE WEAK NATURE OF THE UPPER LEVEL FLOW HAS
RESULTED TO WILDLY VARYING MODEL RESULTS.  AS A RESULT...A MULTI
MODEL/ENSEMBLE MEAN APPROACH WAS USED TO FORECAST THE QPF IN THIS
REGION BUT THE CONFIDENCE FACTOR IS VERY LOW.  FOR CONSISTENCY
SAKE...HAVE KEPT THE POSSIBILITY FOR EXCESSIVE RAINFALL OVER
SOUTHERN FLORIDA ON DAYS 2 AND 3.


...SOUTHWEST/CENTRAL ROCKIES...

MONSOONAL MOISTURE MOVING NORTHWARD UP THE GULF OF CALIFORNIA/SEA
OF CORTEZ WILL WORK IN CONJUNCTION WITH DIURNAL HEATING TO
SCATTERED SHOWERS/THUNDERSTORMS TO THE SOUTHWEST/CENTRAL ROCKIES.
WITHOUT A SIGNIFICANT SHORTWAVE TROUGH...ORGANIZATION IS MINIMAL
BENEATH THE UPPER RIDGE. HOWEVER...LOCALIZED ISSUES OF FLASH
FLOODING ARE POSSIBLE WITHIN THE COMPLEX TERRAIN WHERE RUNOFF MAY
BE AN ISSUE.

HURLEY/KOCIN

GRAPHICS AVAILABLE ON THE WEB AT www.wpc.ncep.noaa.gov/qpf/qpf2.shtml



24HR QP VT 30/00Z
 0.01 434318 440313 446310 451308 457304 462301 466301 468304
      476307 483307 488305 495305 502305 507305 523262 520255
      518246 517238 517233 518229 528236 532230 534223 537211
      540203 542193 542183 539177 534170 524162 520156 515152
      504145 497143 493142 491138 486135 483130 478124 471123
      468122 468127 470132 478142 484146 485151 484154 480153
      478151 476149 474150 469147 467149 465153 461160 456163
      452167 450169 451175 454179 457179 459181 466171 473171
      477170 481172 484179 484186 485189 483192 482196 480198
      477199 472201 467203 458202 453205 443209 393216 391220
      391224 388228 386230 382232 381236 383241 386247 381250
      377253 372258 364269 361276 360283 363286 366287 373288
      381290 388293 394298 399305
 0.01 525741 523723 522707 518693 516688 515683 508666 503658
      497652 493653 491656 481660 476681 476708 475720 474732
      469754 467763 465770 463775 460783 456790 452793 449795
      444797 439798 435799 432802 427810 419823 403863 395881
      390889 385897 375911 369915 366917 361918 356919 351922
      344929 337935 336940 337946 340955 337962 333970 333982
      336985 340987 342990 342993 340997 329010 323018 319024
      315031 313035 312037 310037 304030 302034 304038 306042
      307049 305054 301057 287064 280067 271070 260070 256073
      255077 257081 260084 267089 276093 279095 283096 290100
      293108 297115 299118 303119 318128 326133 330133 331129
      328120 327116 329114 333115 338116 340118 341122 342126
      346128 349130 351125 354124 359123 365125 368124 368118
      360114 353111 349103 345094 344086 344080 343076 339072
      336072 332074 327073 326070 327067 331064 336063 341065
      353067 357069 360072 361078 364081 373084 376084 380081
      384074 393062 395057 395055 391057 388061 385061 383058
      381050 377047 371046 366048 361048 355047 352045 345037
      343032 343024 346019 349015 353007 357000 360994 362992
      368985 377974 389962 400952 408947 416942 426941 431940
      437938 443933 449925 453915 457906 459897 461893 463895
      463911 464917 465922 465931 465939 464947 464958 464964
      465967 467972 467974 470975 475973 479970 491955 496947
      500937 504926 505913 506902 506888 506875 507867 508862
      513842 516831 518821 523795 524767 525741
 0.01 411105 410101 406100 402108 394112 391113 387113 382115
      379119 375125 375130 378128 384129 386125 390118 394115
      398113 401111 405112 409110 411105
 0.01 394798 393794 391794 386795 381798 378803 374808 371813
      374819 379819 382814 385809 388804 392801 394798
 0.01 225743 217748 214749 212753 207766 215783 219791 224797
      234810 236812 237816 240821 243823 247824 252825 254828
      252830 247833 244841 243844 244850 241857 236873 236885
      237887 242888 252887 258885 267881 270879 276878 279876
      283877 287877 290879 298885 300887 306887 315886 319887
      322889 333889 337889 340885 346881 352880 356879 360877
      364875 366871 369864 371855 369849 366846 361839 360826
      359821 357819 352819 348818 341814 337806 337800 337795
      341785 342782 345779 357768 362762 367753 369744 369736
      368723 366717 364713 359708 357705 352706 346706 343706
      335709 327713 321719 316725 315731 313734 310742 306748
      297762 288775 285775 284772 285768 286763 286758 285754
      283750 278743 277740 273738 265736 257734 249733 235738
 0.25 425314 430311 434305 437302 441298 450292 459288 463286
      469286 480288 486287 491289 503292 508291 512287 515283
      517277 519268 517260 514248 513239 513231 514221 517217
      522217 527220 531217 533211 535203 535199 537193 537188
      536185 533180 530175 526171 516165 509174 501180 487200
      478205 470209 451215 415230 410227 406229 401232 398235
      398241 401247 407250 404253 399256 395259 392265 389269
      388274 389278 391281 402287 405292 407298 409304 413310
 0.25 510708 509698 506688 503680 500677 498677 490689 487697
      485704 483723 482743 480760 477779 476787 475797 474806
      472815 472822 472828 475836 479843 482849 482853 483855
      489853 494851 498845 500837 501828 506812 507802 507791
      508771 509760 510751 510729 511717 510708
 0.25 494914 494905 493898 492891 490886 486882 481882 478885
      476890 474896 473904 475917 476923 476930 475938 477942
      481941 486938 488933 491927 494915 494914
 0.25 454867 454857 454848 453839 450833 445831 440833 435835
      430840 423849 417859 406882 403887 401894 400900 398907
      387929 385932 385936 389939 400936 406933 412932 418931
      424929 434923 438918 440914 449887 454867
 0.25 372936 372932 370930 366930 362931 357934 354936 350941
      348947 352951 355952 361949 366945 370941 372936
 0.25 355741 356735 355730 351724 345722 339722 333725 327729
      322734 318739 316746 315754 313769 313778 313788 312796
      311798 309801 304805 296805 295800 290798 287797 283797
      278796 271795 266798 266800 270801 277801 288806 295808
      297810 299814 303821 302826 307831 308833 308837 306840
      304840 300836 294832 287830 279831 273834 256851 252858
      250865 248868 250871 257871 264870 270865 276863 281863
      296867 302868 310868 314869 316871 322874 329874 334872
      339868 342861 339856 336852 327842 321829 321823 322817
      323807 325801 328794 329786 334773 338766 342761 350751
      355741
 0.25 340098 341096 340094 339093 338092 337093 336095 338097
      339098 340098 340098
 0.25 336086 335085 334085 332085 331086 331088 333089 335088
      336086
 0.25 336058 337056 336054 334054 332054 330054 329053 327053
      326055 326057 327058 328059 330059 332059 334059 336058
      336058
 0.25 331081 330079 329080 327081 328083 328084 330083 331081
 0.25 309100 310098 309096 307094 307093 306092 304093 302095
      302096 301097 303099 304100 305100 307101 309101 309100
 0.25 306087 305081 301077 296074 291073 285072 280074 278078
      279081 282085 286086 289085 294086 299090 302090 305089
      306087
 0.25 280815 278811 276810 275809 271808 267808 264809 261809
      259809 260811 262813 264815 267816 269818 272819 275819
      278817 280815
 0.25 254814 254812 253810 253809 251808 251807 250808 249810
      249812 251814 252814 253814 254814
 0.25 243756 244750 242744 239741 235741 232743 229745 226749
      225753 228757 230759 234760 240760 243757 243756
 0.50 530202 531197 531194 530189 528187 527188 525186 522184
      519185 517188 517193 517198 517201 520204 522205 525206
      526206 529205 530202
 0.50 515272 516264 515258 513249 509227 505216 505205 502201
      498200 490202 476208 461215 454218 448221 447231 441239
      437240 433240 423237 419235 415234 412237 411242 418248
      423250 426252 425257 422261 416267 413271 411276 411283
      412286 415297 418306 421308 425307 430301 433297 436294
      442290 449285 456282 462279 466277 471276 480279 489281
      496281 503276 506273 509272 513274 515272
 0.50 504730 504714 501706 499703 495699 492699 489711 488723
      488731 487737 486749 485763 483790 482797 484800 485798
      487797 487800 486805 485820 485826 487831 489829 490822
      492810 491802 493796 499788 502779 503772 503764 502756
      503750 504736 504730
 0.50 487917 487912 487907 487902 486899 484897 483897 480899
      479902 479906 479909 479912 480917 482919 484921 487919
      487917
 0.50 449867 450860 449853 448847 444846 442846 437845 435844
      432847 426855 421863 417870 413880 410889 407898 403919
      403925 407927 412928 417926 424923 431918 434914 436909
      439899 446882 449867
 0.50 351738 350732 349729 346727 342726 337727 330732 325736
      321743 321752 324758 329759 333757 338753 344748 348743
      351738
 0.50 323795 323793 323790 323788 323786 322784 320786 320787
      319789 319791 319793 319794 319795 319797 319798 321798
      322797 323796 323795
 0.50 309856 303846 295836 291834 286833 280834 277839 272849
      263856 260861 264863 269861 273857 275855 278854 282857
      287859 295859 300859 306858 309856
 0.50 303087 303085 303084 302082 301082 299080 298079 296078
      294078 292079 291081 292082 294083 295084 297085 299086
      300086 301087 302087 303087
 0.50 239751 239749 239747 238745 236745 234745 232746 231748
      232750 233752 234754 235754 237754 238753 239753 239751
 1.00 508256 509248 509242 505230 502219 496209 492206 488206
      484207 480211 480214 484214 485218 489223 494233 494240
      493241 490241 484238 481234 478231 472231 464234 461240
      459247 459255 462259 463264 466267 471267 475265 484262
      488265 493269 495270 500269 504260 508256
 1.00 430289 431285 431282 428279 425279 423280 420283 419286
      419290 419293 420296 421299 424300 426298 428296 429292
      430289
 1.00 441878 441869 439863 435860 431858 427861 425867 422879
      417889 414900 413906 415912 415920 418921 421920 429914
      431909 433904 434896 435890 440880 441878
 1.00 300849 299845 298842 296840 294839 292838 288837 286837
      284838 283841 282844 283848 284850 286852 289853 293853
      296852 298851 300849
 1.50 490250 490247 490245 490244 488243 487243 486243 485245
      486248 486249 487249 489251 490250
 1.50 481244 480242 480241 479238 478236 477234 476233 474233
      472234 471236 470238 471241 471242 472244 473244 474246
      476246 477246 479246 479245 481244
 1.50 429883 430881 428880 428881 427883 426883 425886 424888
      423889 423891 423893 424894 425893 426893 427890 427889
      427888 427886 428884 429883
 1.50 427907 428905 428902 428900 427899 425899 425900 424901
      423902 422903 422905 421907 420908 420910 421912 422914
      424912 425912 426910 426909 427907 427907
 1.50 294847 295845 294844 293843 292842 291843 290844 289845
      290847 292848 294847 294847 

24HR QP VT 31/00Z
 0.01 525174 525168 522164 516155 509149 503145 498143 494140
      488133 481126 477127 475131 472135 468137 462136 458138
      450136 448133 451129 453126 457125 462119 464114 468112
      475106 478101 480097 481090 480084 477080 476075 473073
      469072 467070 464069 462069 460071 454078 451075 448070
      442067 438069 437074 437083 436087 434089 428091 426096
      425103 418113 412118 409121 407125 405130 404135 404142
      406145 410148 415147 419145 421143 426136 429131 432128
      435129 436133 437138 440142 444142 442145 442149 442157
      444160 445169 446174 450176 453179 456177 457182 460188
      463191 468193 472192 474193 473196 471199 463203 448212
      438211 434218 429226 427230 424231 415235 412237 409242
      407246 406250 404252 406255 410259 414260 417263 419269
      423270 426271 430270 437264 443259 451254 459258 463262
      465267 469276 475283 484300 489302 492300 496289 500279
      502270 504264 510241 512233 512228 508221 510207 513201
      517204 519202 520197 522190 523180 525174
 0.01 494671 492656 490652 487650 481644 478643 473644 466649
      465655 465662 464673 460681 455690 452698 452704 454708
      456712 460714 464723 465727 469729 474729 477730 486730
      489728 492724 491718 490713 487699 486695 487689 491685
      492682 494671
 0.01 457788 453781 448780 440781 437779 434775 429777 426773
      424770 421768 415767 411769 405773 400777 395782 391786
      384790 372797 365802 361802 358801 352797 351792 351788
      356776 360770 364766 368760 370757 369753 369747 370743
      372736 375728 376723 377713 375705 370700 365698 358698
      349702 337709 329717 325723 321727 318729 317733 318736
      316738 307746 301751 296756 272771 265774 257776 248782
      243786 239791 237796 233800 229807 227811 227814 227817
      230819 234824 239829 244832 250835 259837 267847 268850
      269854 269862 270868 271871 274874 274878 271892 269898
      265903 258913 249940 248946 249955 258961 263965 269967
      274969 281968 292939 292919 292913 293910 296900 307879
      310873 314872 316873 320875 322879 327883 352883 360884
      366885 373888 379893 378895 371896 367899 363904 353916
      348921 344925 339936 328945 327946 329949 331950 331954
      334958 338958 346958 358961 366961 371959 381953 389943
      405917 413907 417900 420892 426878 432867 446841 451826
      453820 456813 457788
 0.01 446048 447037 442033 437037 433041 431044 427044 422043
      416048 409051 397046 384049 379048 376046 370046 364049
      360049 358047 352049 348050 343049 331045 324044 322048
      324065 321073 316078 312078 308077 302075 295073 287070
      277065 270062 264058 253052 247050 239049 234053 231059
      230068 231072 233075 241083 246087 251090 258094 262098
      266103 271109 282115 287119 292122 299125 308126 315127
      318125 322126 327126 332123 335122 339124 344129 351130
      355129 362125 364123 367119 370114 375112 380109 386106
      392103 396099 413078 416071 419067 423060 427058 430058
      433057 437057 441055 444053 446048
 0.25 514184 515178 515174 514168 513165 509163 505162 498163
      491165 489165 486169 488177 490182 492186 497192 503195
      509193 513187 514184
 0.25 500261 500257 499255 497250 497245 499243 502241 504226
      504217 502212 498207 495204 485203 476206 469210 451216
      446217 441220 439225 439234 439237 442238 447239 457241
      475253 479258 481262 486272 488278 489283 491285 493279
      500261
 0.25 486233 485230 484228 483227 482226 480226 479225 478225
      479226 479228 480229 481231 481232 483233 484234 486233
 0.25 432838 431816 431806 429795 424792 419792 414797 411803
      408810 405815 402822 400830 396844 403855 407860 409862
      414862 424853 427848 430843 432838
 0.25 392080 392077 390075 387073 383073 380073 378075 377078
      379080 381082 382084 386085 388084 390082 392080
 0.25 355091 355086 354084 351084 348086 343082 338076 332077
      328083 331092 332101 339103 343103 343100 344097 347094
      349092 353091 355091
 0.25 358850 358844 356840 352835 345818 344815 344810 342803
      338796 333790 326788 317787 311788 304791 299793 295792
      288790 280790 273788 263788 255789 249792 244797 239805
      238811 238816 240819 245823 253826 261827 280825 283826
      284831 286840 289847 293853 298855 303853 309850 317848
      323851 329857 335860 342863 350864 353862 356858 358850
 0.25 315110 312096 308091 302087 292079 286078 279078 272079
      265078 260079 258081 258086 267095 271099 277102 288108
      302114 306114 309113 315110 315110
 0.50 513181 512176 510171 508168 503167 499168 496170 494176
      496181 501183 504186 509187 512184 513181
 0.50 499240 501230 502221 500215 497211 487208 481208 476209
      468214 463215 458217 453218 449220 446225 448229 452230
      456229 459233 463236 471246 480252 487262 490266 492266
      494261 495254 494249 491243 487239 484240 481237 478233
      475229 473226 474224 479223 484225 489228 491233 496239
      499240
 0.50 425839 424837 424836 423836 421835 419837 418839 418841
      418842 417844 417846 418848 420847 422847 422846 423844
      424843 425841 425839
 0.50 418820 419818 418816 418815 416815 415816 414817 413819
      412821 411823 411824 411826 413828 413829 414828 415827
      417825 418823 418821 418820
 0.50 345840 346835 344831 341826 335815 334811 332808 329803
      324800 318800 304802 298802 290801 285798 281796 269793
      262793 256793 251796 246799 243805 242811 243817 248819
      255820 262820 269818 275817 289817 295817 301821 307822
      312824 320825 325827 331837 334842 336850 339851 341849
      343846 345840
 0.50 296099 296094 295090 288087 281086 276091 271087 268085
      264084 264087 266089 273092 278096 282098 285101 287103
      292102 295101 296099
 1.00 498232 499227 498221 497218 495216 494214 491213 487212
      486213 483214 483219 484221 488222 491224 492227 493230
      495233 498232
 1.00 488249 488247 488246 486246 487249 488249
 1.00 477243 478241 477238 476237 475237 474236 473236 472239
      473241 474242 475242 476243 477243
 1.00 282806 278803 270800 264798 255799 248802 245808 245811
      247813 252814 257813 264809 271806 280806 282806
 1.50 494223 494220 493219 492218 490219 491221 492222 493223
      494223 494223
 1.50 489219 488217 487217 486218 487218 488219 489219
 1.50 259805 258803 257803 256803 254804 252804 250805 249806
      248808 248810 249811 251811 253811 254810 255810 256809
      258807 259805 

24HR QP VT 01/00Z
 0.01 522184 524170 524165 523162 519156 516155 514152 512149
      509149 506151 503151 495150 490152 485159 482165 483169
      483174 482181 480185 479189 477193 472198 465209 462212
      461216 458224 454232 448234 446243 449244 451247 454254
      460260 465264 468267 468272 470279 473286 477294 482296
      489281 495278 499272 502266 505258 508247 510236 512227
      514216 522184
 0.01 533920 533913 531908 527901 523897 520897 519900 515919
      513923 510925 504926 498930 494939 493943 491944 486949
      472974 468982 465991 458005 448013 439021 433028 433037
      441039 447038 451038 452042 454044 457044 464040 467037
      471037 474039 480047 485052 482054 478054 473058 469063
      464069 460072 452075 444075 443077 444079 448080 450083
      454084 456086 461092 461097 460103 457110 462112 469108
      473103 476096 484081 487076 491069 494060 494058 491055
      487053 490051 494046 502035 509024 511019 510015 506008
      496000 493998 495995 500990 504985 509983 516978 522974
      526968 528965 528962 526955 523947 520944 522939 525934
      533920
 0.01 473695 471683 467674 462665 452669 449672 448675 450680
      451686 452693 454698 456712 459722 461718 461711 461706
      463700 471696 473695
 0.01 443829 436797 431789 424782 420776 421773 415763 399760
      393757 389758 388765 390769 391773 391777 390780 387783
      379790 372798 369801 364804 358805 352804 349799 348791
      349787 351785 355781 361776 363771 365766 364762 359753
      351744 348740 345743 335760 252774 245776 240778 236779
      235782 231786 228790 228796 229802 231807 236817 239829
      240832 239835 240837 244841 246847 253857 262862 267865
      270868 273872 276877 278883 278890 278894 276898 274901
      264917 261930 264943 264951 260951 256949 253951 252957
      252964 252972 252977 255981 259984 263986 266985 278981
      288977 293974 297970 299968 302963 304957 305951 307945
      307939 301933 301920 303914 306907 307904 310903 314899
      326884 332876 336872 342870 339875 339880 349882 363881
      375876 386872 390870 395869 405864 409862 415861 421860
      424855 429848 438837 443829
 0.01 431042 429037 427034 424033 419031 416029 412028 411026
      405026 396027 391032 388036 385042 381043 360038 355039
      351040 349041 342046 333052 328059 321070 318073 314076
      309079 305079 297073 293070 287067 280067 278069 277077
      278083 285089 289093 291099 294103 297106 300111 301116
      305119 310120 331115 342114 346116 349114 367102 371101
      374102 383098 400099 403102 407105 411108 414104 417087
      418082 417076 416069 417063 423054 428047 431042
 0.25 517188 519178 520172 519168 516163 510160 504161 500164
      499170 500178 502186 505192 508198 511199 514197 515195
      517188
 0.25 505242 508229 508223 507219 505210 502207 498206 493205
      487205 479208 475212 470218 470223 472226 471231 469234
      465239 464245 465248 471253 474260 478268 482274 485274
      487272 493268 496267 498263 499255 503249 505242
 0.25 415821 415818 414815 412814 410811 410807 410801 410796
      412788 410785 406786 401790 397793 393794 386796 381802
      377807 374815 370821 365827 362832 362836 366838 374835
      382832 387832 396830 397828 401826 404829 408828 414823
      415821
 0.25 403072 403066 402062 397057 394056 390056 387058 386061
      380065 375069 372073 372076 374080 377082 384084 389085
      394085 397083 400076 403072
 0.25 355082 352077 345075 340076 334080 332084 331091 335095
      340099 345098 349092 352086 355082
 0.25 345776 345770 342770 338775 329783 321787 313788 307787
      302785 293782 287782 272782 264782 256783 249784 243788
      238793 237799 241813 244822 247827 251831 258833 283842
      295849 302849 309847 314847 317845 321840 326835 329829
      332821 333813 332808 332804 335798 339792 341786 345776
 0.25 317097 316094 315092 312090 310089 306088 302088 301091
      301095 302097 305099 309100 312100 316099 317097
 0.50 516185 516181 516177 515173 514169 513167 509166 506166
      504167 503171 504174 505177 506181 507184 509186 512187
      514187 516185
 0.50 504244 506234 506225 505218 501212 496208 491209 481211
      478213 477218 478222 480223 480228 475232 472236 470241
      471245 478256 480262 483267 487268 488267 492264 496262
      497260 496252 501248 504244
 0.50 343091 344089 342088 342087 341086 340087 339089 338091
      339091 340092 342092 343091
 0.50 322812 324808 323803 319800 310797 302792 298790 293789
      281789 276789 271788 261786 254787 247790 243792 240795
      240801 243814 245818 248822 256826 262826 267828 275833
      284837 292842 298841 299836 299828 301823 306821 312821
      317819 319817 322812
 1.00 503241 504234 503228 502222 500218 497214 492214 489215
      486218 486223 487228 490234 492237 495240 498243 502242
      503241
 1.00 492258 493251 493245 490242 485239 482242 480239 479236
      475235 475241 478244 481247 483252 485256 487260 491259
      492258
 1.00 301806 299801 296798 290794 278795 270793 266792 261791
      253792 245795 243799 243805 245811 247815 253820 261819
      268822 274828 282831 285830 283827 277822 273819 270816
      269812 269808 275806 280807 284808 285812 286815 288814
      292812 300808 301806
 1.50 503238 502236 501233 500228 500224 498221 497219 493219
      491222 490224 491227 492231 493233 495236 497238 500240
      503238
 1.50 490255 491253 492250 491248 491247 490245 489244 488244
      486243 485246 485248 486250 486251 486254 487254 488257
      490255 490255
 1.50 291803 289802 287803 286804 287804 289804 291803 291803
 1.50 272799 268795 262794 255794 248795 245801 247809 249812
      254816 258813 261809 264804 269802 272799
 2.00 501238 501235 500233 499232 499229 498227 498224 497224
      496222 495221 493222 493225 493227 493230 495232 496234
      498236 499237 500238 501238 501238
 2.00 491250 489248 488249 488252 488254 490252 490251 491250
 2.00 267798 264796 259796 255795 252796 249796 246800 246802
      249807 253810 254809 257805 261803 265801 267798