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Quantitative Precipitation Forecast (QPF) Discussion
 
(Caution: Version displayed is not the latest version. - Issued 0843Z Feb 18, 2018)
 
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Abbreviations and acronyms used in this product
 
Geographic Boundaries -  Map 1: Color  Black/White       Map 2: Color  Black/White


QUANTITATIVE PRECIPITATION FORECAST DISCUSSION
NWS WEATHER PREDICTION CENTER COLLEGE PARK MD
343 AM EST SUN FEB 18 2018


PRELIM DAY 1...DAY 2 AND DAY 3 QPF DISCUSSION
VALID FEB 18/1200 UTC THRU FEB 21/1200 UTC
REFERENCE AWIPS GRAPHICS UNDER...PRECIP ACCUM - 24HR

DAY 1

...UPPER MISSISSIPPI VALLEY-UPPER GREAT LAKES...

LONGWAVE TROUGH DIGGING SOUTH ACROSS THE WESTERN CONUS WILL ALLOW
FOR AN UPTICK IN DEEP-LAYER WAA WITHIN A MORE AMPLIFIED, EXPANSIVE
WARM CONVEYOR BELT (WCB) DURING THE DAY 1 PERIOD. MEANWHILE, AS
THE PATTERN SHIFTS TOWARD A STRONGLY -PNA, THE STRENGTHENING
CONFLUENT UPPER FLOW SOUTH OF THE HUDSON BAY LOW WILL BOLSTER THE
UPPER LEVEL JET STREAK NORTH OF THE U.S./CANADIAN BORDER, WHICH
(UNDERNEATH ITS BROAD ENTRANCE REGION) WILL MAINTAIN LOW-LEVEL
FRONTOGENESIS AND THEREBY HINDER THE SURFACE WARM FRONT'S
NORTHWARD PROGRESS. THE UPSHOT IS A STRIPE OF HIGHER
LIQUID-EQUIVALENT QPF FROM NORTHEAST MN-FAR NORTHERN WI INTO THE
NORTH PORTIONS OF WESTERN UPPER MI WHERE THE (ROUGHLY 12 HOUR)
PERIOD OF FAVORABLY DEEP MOIST ISENTROPIC ASCENT CAN EFFECTIVELY
COUPLE WITH THE NORTHERN STREAM FORCING/INDUCED FRONTOGENESIS.

IN TERMS OF THE QPF, WPC STAYED FAIRLY CLOSE TO CONTINUITY
(PREVIOUS FORECAST), ESSENTIALLY A NON-GFS BLEND, WHICH COMPARED
QUITE FAVORABLY TO THE 00Z ECMWF, UKMET, HREF MEAN, AND 03Z NBM.
THE GFS MEANWHILE WAS A BIT FARTHER SOUTH WITH THE MAX QPF AXIS,
IN WHAT WOULD APPEAR TO BE AWAY FROM THE BEST LOW-MID LEVEL
FRONTOGENESIS AND SOUTH OF THE OPTIMALLY LOW CONDENSATION PRESSURE
DEFICITS PER THE 285-305K ISENTROPIC SURFACES.


...PAC NW/NORTHERN INTER-MOUNTAIN WEST TO UPPER MIDWEST...

A RATHER DRAMATIC PATTERN CHANGE COMING UP FOR THE WEST, AS A
FULL-LATITUDE UPPER TROUGH DIGS DOWN THE PAC NW COAST WITH
SIGNIFICANT HEIGHT FALLS INTO SOUTHERN CA BY THE END OF THE PERIOD
(500 MB HEIGHTS SOME 3 STANDARD DEVIATIONS BELOW NORMAL PER THE
SREF AND GEFS ON MONDAY). DPVA/LEFT-EXIT REGION UPPER FORCING
ALONG WITH THE STRONG LOW-LEVEL ONSHORE FLOW DURING THE FIRST HALF
OF THE PERIOD (12-00Z) WILL LEAD TO MODERATE-HEAVY TOTALS ACROSS
THE OREGON COASTAL AND CASCADE RANGES INTO THE COASTAL RANGES
ALONG THE NORTH COAST OF CA. ANOTHER BROADER AREA OF MOD-HEAVY
LIQUID-EQUIVALENT QPF IS NOTED FROM THE EASTERN (ELEVATED) AREAS
OF THE GREAT BASIN INTO THE CENTRAL CO ROCKIES AND ACROSS MUCH OF
WY. THESE AREAS WILL BENEFIT NOT ONLY FROM THE ENHANCED INHERENT
OROGRAPHIC LIFT, BUT ALSO FROM WHAT WOULD APPEAR TO BE A PROLONGED
PERIOD OF FAVORABLE RIGHT-ENTRANCE REGION FORCING FROM THE
SLOWLY-PIVOTING/AMPLIFYING UPPER JET STREAK ON THE EASTERN FLANK
OF THE UPPER TROUGH. IN TERMS OF THE QPF, WPC CONTINUED WITH A
BASE OF THE GFS/ECMWF, WHILE ALSO INCORPORATING THE HREF MEAN.

DAYS 2/3...


...INTERMOUNTAIN WEST/CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN ROCKIES/NORTHERN
PLAINS...

A POSITIVELY TILTED LONG WAVE TROUGH EXTENDING FROM THE NORTHERN
ROCKIES TO CENTRAL CA EARLY ON DAY 2 TRUNDLES EASTWARD...EJECTING
SHORT WAVE ENERGY IN IN THE MID LEVEL FLOW ACROSS THE
INTERMOUNTAIN WEST INTO THE CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN ROCKIES. THE
SHORT WAVE ENERGY PROVIDES SYNOPTIC SCALE LIFT OVER A FRONTAL
BOUNDARY DROPPING ACROSS THE ROCKIES INTO CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN
PLAINS. THE COMBINATION OF LIFT AND UPSLOPE FLOW WILL PRODUCE
LOCALLY HEAVY QPF. THERE WAS GENERALLY GOOD MODEL AGREEMENT WITH
THE OVERALL SETUP...SO THE WPC QPF WAS BASED PRIMARILY ON A BLEND
OF THE 00Z ECMWF/GFS.

DAY 2...
AS THE POSITIVELY LONG WAVE TROUGH EVOLVES OVER THE WESTERN UNITED
STATES FROM THE NORTHERN ROCKIES INTO CENTRAL CA ON DAY 2...SHORT
WAVE ENERGY IS EJECTED FROM THE LONG WAVE TROUGH ACROSS THE
CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN ROCKIES INTO THE SOUTHWEST STATES. THE SHORT
WAVE ENERGY PROVIDES SYNOPTIC SCALE ASCENT OVER THE CENTRAL AND
SOUTHERN ROCKIES AS A COLD FRONT DROPS SOUTH ACROSS THE REGION
INTO THE CENTRAL PLAINS. UPSLOPE FLOW BEHIND THE FRONT COMBINES
WITH THE SYNOPTIC SCALE LIFT TO PRODUCE A LARGE AREA OF 0.25 TO
0.50 INCHES OF QPF EXTENDING FROM UT ACROSS WESTERN CO...SOUTHEAST
WY INTO MUCH OF SD. UPSLOPE FLOW IS MAXIMIZES ACROSS THE SAN JUAN
MOUNTAINS OF SOUTHWEST CO INTO NORTH CENTRAL NM...WHERE THERE WAS
A MULTI MODEL SIGNAL FOR 1.25 INCHES OF QPF. FURTHER SOUTH...THERE
WAS ALSO A MODEL SIGNAL FOR 0.50 TO 1.00 INCHES OF QPF OVER THE
MOGOLLON RIM IN AZ...WITH LESSER AMOUNT EXTENDING INTO NORTH
CENTRAL AZ. SNOW LEVELS ARE LOW ENOUGH HERE TO PRECLUDE A FLOOD
THREAT DURING DAY 2.

LOCALLY HEAVY SNOWFALL IS POSSIBLE ACROSS THE HIGHER TERRAIN OF
THE CENTRAL AND SOUTHERN ROCKIES ON DAY 2. PLEASE REFER TO THE
MOST RECENT SUITE OF WPC WINTER WEATHER PRODUCTS FOR MORE
INFORMATION.

DAY 3...
THE LONG WAVE TROUGH WEAKENS AS IT MOVES EASTWARD...REACHING A
POSITION FROM MT INTO AZ BY THE END OF DAY 3. MUCH OF THE BEST
LIFT EXITS WITH THE SHORT WAVE ENERGY EJECTED FROM THE LONG WAVE
TROUGH...WITH LOCAL 0.10 TO 0.25 INCHES OF QPF PLACED OVER THE CO
ROCKIES.


...SOUTHERN PLAINS INTO THE MID AND UPPER MS VALLEY/OH
VALLEY/NORTHEAST...

A POSITIVELY TILTED LONG WAVE TROUGH OVER THE ROCKIES ON DAY 2
MOVES SLOWLY EAST AS IT WEAKENS ON DAY 3. SHORT WAVE ENERGY
EJECTED FROM THE LONG WAVE TROUGH PROVIDES SYNOPTIC SCALE ASCENT
OVER A SLOWLY MOVING FROM EXTENDING FROM THE UPPER GREAT LAKES
INTO THE SOUTHERN PLAINS. DEEP MOISTURE AND INSTABILITY DRAWN
NORTH AHEAD OF THE FRONT WILL SUPPORT CONVECTION THAT PRODUCES
HEAVY TO EXCESSIVE RAINFALL...ESPECIALLY DURING DAY 3. THERE IS
SOME SPREAD CONCERNING THE PLACEMENT OF THE FRONT IN THE DEEP MID
LEVEL SOUTHWEST FLOW...AND THEREFORE THE PLACEMENT OF THE MAXIMUM
QPF...ESPECIALLY ON DAY 3. IN AN ATTEMPT TO MITIGATE SOME OF THE
DIFFERENCES...THE WPC QPF WAS BASED ON A BLEND OF THE 00Z
ECMWF/GFS.

DAY 2...
A FRONTAL BOUNDARY BECOMES ORIENTED FROM EASTERN IA ACROSS
NORTHERN IL INTO THE CENTRAL LP OF MI DURING DAY 2...WHERE IS
BECOMES QUASI STATIONARY BENEATH AN INCREASINGLY FAST SOUTHWEST
MID LEVEL FLOW. SHORT WAVE ENERGY IN THE MID LEVEL FLOW...EJECTED
FROM A LONG WAVE TROUGH OVER THE WESTERN UNITED STATES...PROVIDES
SYNOPTIC SCALE LIFT OVER THE FRONT...WHICH IS AUGMENTED BY
DIVERGENCE IN THE RIGHT REAR QUADRANT OF A 150 KNOT JET STREAK
EXTENDING MN INTO ONTARIO DURING THE SECOND HALF OF THE PERIOD.
THE BEST MID LEVEL LIFT OCCURS IN THE 20/00Z TO 20/06Z TIME
FRAME...DURING WHICH TIME MODEL SOUNDINGS SHOWED
MARGINAL...ELEVATED INSTABILITY EXTENDING FROM EASTERN IA ACROSS
NORTHERN IL/SOUTHERN WI INTO THE LP OF MI.

A 40 TO 50 KNOT LOW LEVEL SOUTHWEST FLOW TRANSPORTS 1.00/1.25 INCH
PRECIPITABLE WATER (WHICH IS ABOUT THREE STANDARD DEVIATIONS ABOVE
THE MEAN) ALONG AND OVER THE FRONT. THERE IS A MULTI MODEL SIGNAL
FOR AN AXIS OF 2.00 INCHES OF QPF OVER FAR NORTHERN IL AND FAR
SOUTHERN WI...AND HIGHER AMOUNTS ARE POSSIBLE DUE TO LOCALIZED
TRAINING. THREE HOUR FLASH FLOOD GUIDANCE VALUES ARE AS LOW AS
1.50 INCHES...AND DESPITE THE FACT THAT THE CONVECTION IS EXPECTED
TO BE ELEVATED...HIGHER RAINFALL RATES COULD RESULT IN A THREAT
FOR FLASH FLOODING. A SLIGHT RISK AREA WAS PLACED IN THE
ABOVEMENTIONED AREAS FOR DAY 2. 

ALONG THE FRONTAL BOUNDARY AS IT EXTENDS ACROSS MO INTO OK...THE
CONVECTION IS SURFACE BASED...AND MOISTURE IS PLENTIFUL ON A 50 TO
55 KNOT LOW LEVEL SOUTHWEST FLOW. HOWEVER...THE MODEL SIGNAL HERE
FOR QPF IS NOT AS STRONG AS IT IS ACROSS THE UPPER GREAT
LAKES...WHERE AN AXIS OF 0.75/1.00 INCHES OF QPF WAS PLACED FROM
NORTHWEST MO INTO EASTERN OK.

DAY 3...
THE FRONTAL BOUNDARY EXTENDS FROM LP OF MI ACROSS IL/MO INTO
AR/NORTHEAST TX DURING DAY 3...MOVING SLOWLY EASTWARD UNDER A
STRONG SOUTHWEST MID LEVEL FLOW AHEAD OF A WEAKENING MID LEVEL
TROUGH OVER THE ROCKIES AND SOUTHWEST STATES. SHORT WAVE ENERGY
EJECTED FROM THE LONG WAVE TROUGH CROSSES THE FRONT...WITH THE
BEST MID LEVEL OCCURRING AFTER 21/00Z. AHEAD OF THE FRONT...A 40
TO 50 KNOT LOW LEVEL SOUTHWEST FLOW TRANSPORTS 1.50/1.75 INCH
PRECIPITABLE WATER AIR (WHICH IS GREATER THAN FOUR STANDARD
DEVIATIONS ABOVE THE MEAN) FROM NORTHEAST TX INTO PORTIONS OF IL).
MODEL SOUNDINGS ALONG THE FRONT SHOWED MAINLY MARGINAL TO MODERATE
INSTABILITY FROM NORTHEAST INTO SOUTHEAST MO...WITH GENERALLY
MARGINAL INSTABILITY FURTHER NORTH INTO THE SOUTHERN LP OF MI
(WHERE THE INSTABILITY COULD BE ELEVATED).

THE COMBINATION OF MOISTURE AND INSTABILITY WILL SUPPORT
CONVECTION ALONG THE FRONT...WHICH SHOULD BE ORGANIZED...BASED ON
ON THE SHEAR IN THE COLUMN...SUPPORTED BY DIVERGENCE IN THE RIGHT
REAR QUADRANT OF A 170 KNOT JET STREAK EXITING WI FRO ONTARIO.
WHILE THERE WAS SOME SPREAD ON THE PLACEMENT OF THE MAXIMUM
QPF...THERE WAS ENOUGH MODEL SIGNAL TO STRETCH AN AXIS OF 2.50 TO
4.00 INCHES OF QPF FROM NORTHEAST TX ACROSS EASTERN OK/NORTHWEST
AR INTO SOUTHERN MO AND FAR SOUTHERN IL. THIS POSITION WAS
SUPPORTED BY THE POSITIONS OF 00Z GEFS MEAN AND THE 12Z ECMWF
ENSEMBLE MEAN...WHILE MEMBERS OF THE 00Z GEFS SHOWED 4.00+ INCHES
AMOUNTS IN THIS AXIS. HIGHER AMOUNTS ARE POSSIBLE WHERE TRAINING
OCCURS AHEAD OF THE SLOW MOVING FRONT.

THE FLOW IN THE COLUMN IS QUASI UNIDIRECTIONAL...AND THE 850-300
MB FLOW BECOMES BETTER ALIGNED WITH PROPAGATION VECTORS...
INCREASING THE THREAT FOR TRAINING. BASED ON THIS...AND AFTER
COLLABORATION WITH WFOS FWD/SHV/TSA/LZK/SGF...A MODERATE RISK WAS
EXTENDED FROM NORTHEAST TX ACROSS PORTIONS OF NORTHERN AND CENTRAL
AR INTO A PORTION OF SOUTHEAST MO. THE PLACEMENT OF THIS AREA
COULD CHANGE A BIT AS MODEL SOLUTIONS CONVERGE ON A FRONTAL TIMING
AND MAXIMUM QPF PLACEMENT...BUT THE MODEL SIGNAL WAS ENOUGH FOR A
MODERATE RISK.

FURTHER NORTH ACROSS IL INTO WESTERN AND NORTHERN IN AND THE
SOUTHERN PORTION OF THE LP OF MI...PRECIPITABLE WATER VALUES OF
THREE STANDARD DEVIATIONS AND MARGINAL INSTABILITY (SOME OF WHICH
COULD BE ELEVATED...ESPECIALLY OVER SOUTHERN MI) SHOULD SUPPORT
LOW TOPPED CONVECTION PRODUCING 2.00/2.50 INCHES OF QPF. THE MODEL
SIGNAL THIS FAR NORTH WAS NOT AS STRONG AS FURTHER SOUTH...BUT
GIVEN THE AMOUNT MOISTURE IN THE COLUMN...AND A SURFACE FOCUS IN
PLACE...A SLIGHT RISK WAS EXTENDED INTO THESE AREAS FOR DAY 3.

ICE IS POSSIBLE ACROSS PORTIONS OF THE CENTRAL PLAINS/MID AND
UPPER MS VALLEY INTO THE UPPER GREAT LAKES DURING DAYS 2 AND 3.
PLEASE REFER TO THE MOST RECENT SUITE OF WPC WINTER WEATHER
PRODUCTS FOR MORE INFORMATION.

GRAPHICS AVAILABLE ON THE WEB AT www.wpc.ncep.noaa.gov/qpf/qpf2.shtml

HURLEY/HAYES

                                                
THIS DISCUSSION WILL TRANSITION TO MIXED-CASE FEB 26, 2018.  THE
LISTING OF ISOHYET POINTS CONTAINED BELOW WILL ALSO BE ELIMINATED
FROM THE PRODUCT FEB 26, 2018.  ISOHYET GRID INFORMATION WILL   
CONTINUE TO BE GENERATED IN A VARIETY OF BINARY FORMATS AND MADE
AVAILABLE THROUGH THE WPC GIS PAGE.
                                                          
24HR QP VT 19/12Z
 0.01 456625 458629 460636 462648 469666 471672 474677 477684
      476689 473693 472696 468697 468693 466692 461694 454694
      446700 439703 431706 426707 424707 419707 415706 409703
      404696 402693 401688 399674 398668 396663 395654 398646
      400643
 0.01 514780 513772 512762 508753 505748 502747 498747 493748
      487749 483753 480759 478765 476772 476777 475784 473790
      470798 468802 467809 465830 460853 460857 462861 463866
      462871 456896 453904 451908 447912 442916 438913 433909
      429903 429896 430888 431882 433876 436866 438861 436859
      430838 427830 422822 414809 410804 408798 402792 398790
      393791 390793 387792 377785 368781 364780 360783 355791
      337822 333828 331833 328837 326844 324847 324853 323866
      322872 321877 320887 316896 315903 315911 315919 317922
      321926 322929 323933 322937 320938 315937 309941 304940
      301937 296932 293940 295943 294947 287953 277968 275971
      269973 269975 273977 279983 280985 279988 278991 275995
      275001 276005 280010 279015 277017 275015 271012 267011
      262012 258010 257004 253000 242999 237999 236004 236009
      237013 241020 248024 261026 264031 267033 273038 277039
      281037 285034 287034 288037 291041 295044 297040 296034
      298032 301032 308034 310034 312031 319028 325022 327018
      330014 336010 338006 339000 341996 340993 345987 352978
      357971 368959 372955 376956 382956 388957 397965 400970
      405971 409973 412973 420973 426969 430971 431978 427004
      426009 424013 421025 419031 418034 415036 412039 410044
      409049 408052 406053 401053 398054 397058 395058 390059
      386061 384058 374051 369050 364052 356053 349057 347057
      344059 341061 339060 337055 332054 326054 325057 325060
      325068 324075 319082 317085 315086 311085 305084 299083
      296081 292077 286073 280072 277069 265067 261063 258063
      257065 256069 259076 259092 261111 267115 276117 280117
      284114 293111 297110 301115 306121 310122 313119 319119
      321116 326113 330115 332118 336128 336134 339137 343136
      344133 347132 351132 353130 356120 355115 353112 348104
      345096 345093 348094 350099 353102 357102 360098 363095
      364092 360089
 0.01 360089 356085 357081 359080 360077 362074 364072 366074
      372088 374093 378095 382095 387098 390102 391105 390109
      385111 377116 373118 367119 365117 363118 361120 364124
      368127 371131 373139 377144 385146 388148 390152 389160
      387167 386175 386180 387182 387186 385188 383189 380188
      372183 364180 357180 348184 346187 346192 348196 349192
      352190 360192 369197 376204 385212 392219 398223 403222
      406222 407225 405226 398226 392227 386230 384231 381229
      377226 375223 376219 372217 363213 357211 350208 341200
      338200 337205 351229 356239 361247 364252 368256 375263
      381267 388269 400273 415277 429279 434278 439276 443275
      446273 450267 451262 462261 480252 485248 491245 492241
      492238 491228 489213 494205 500196 501194 501186 499168
      496157 498154 501152 504151 508151 509141 506134 502122
      500107 499102 496099 492094 491090 491086 495054 494045
      495032 495009 496973 496937 498928 501921 502916 503906
      505896 505885 505880 506877 506866 506858 507849 508835
      512804 514780
 0.01 473199 474196 474194 474191 474189 473187 473186 472184
      471185 470188 468190 468192 469195 470198 471198 472199
      473199
 0.01 469699 464698 462698 458701 455705 449711 441714 441716
      443715 446715 448717 449721 444728 453725 454719 455716
      456715 461706 467700 469699
 0.01 473076 472073 472071 471068 469070 469073 470075 471076
      472078 473076
 0.01 470066 471063 471061 471058 471056 471053 471051 470048
      468046 467048 467050 467053 468055 468058 468060 468063
      468065 469068 470066
 0.01 464006 465003 463001 463998 462996 461998 461001 461003
      462003 462006 463008 464006
 0.01 440750 439748 438750 435749 433749 432752 431754 432759
      432764 434764 436761 437758 439755 439753 440750
 0.01 437136 437134 438131 438129 437127 435126 434124 432126
      431128 431130 431131 433133 434135 434136 436138 437136
 0.01 384072 384067 383065 382063 381059 379058 375055 374054
      373057 373060 375062 378064 380065 381069 383072 384072
 0.01 345178 345168 342164 338162 327160 317159 309160 309165
      312167 314169 314172 314178 318180 321180 326177 329176
      336180 343183 345178
 0.01 361896 360887 358886 356888 353887 352881 354879 354874
      353866 352861 349861 348868 347876 347882 346886 346891
      344897 344915 343922 343930 345932 346930 347927 349921
      355912 358905 360902 360898 361896
 0.01 345079 345076 345074 344072 344070 342070 340067 339067
      338067 337069 337070 337071 338073 340076 341078 341080
      343081 345080 345079
 0.01 335769 333759 331752 330748 328744 324741 321733 317729
      314728 311730 310732 310737 311741 313745 314748 311749
      308749 306752 305759 307769 309775 309780 311783 312787
      315789 317790 320788 324790 326789 329786 332781 335769
 0.01 336075 335073 333075 332075 333075 334076 336075
 0.01 333815 332811 329810 322811 314812 310815 304818 300821
      297826 299832 303838 303843 299847 300855 305857 311857
      317855 320851 320842 320834 320830 321827 324823 330820
      333815
 0.01 295891 295887 292884 287881 283877 279871 275866 271863
      269861 264861 257862 251866 246864 242865 242869 241873
      239875 237877 237881 237884 240886 256885 263888 267891
      276890 282894 289894 295891
 0.01 258768 255762 252760 249761 244766 243773 244780 239785
      236790 234792 234796 234800 235804 238812 242815 244823
      247823 247819 249813 258805 259801 257800 254800 252800
      253798 256791 256785 257769 258768
 0.25 493817 493810 490809 488811 483819 478831 472838 470844
      470855 471862 471868 471876 470887 468898 466904 465912
      467923 469939 470947 471952 475956 478955 480953 481948
      482939 485909 486892 487886 488881 491867 492853 494836
      493820 493817
 0.25 483176 484169 483163 482158 481153 479149 474148 473153
      475158 476162 477168 478174 481178 483176
 0.25 472219 470213 464211 460211 455213 449212 442212 434215
      429214 425210 423215 419217 414219 412226 408229 404231
      399233 394238 394241 396246 401249 407250 417250 424251
      430251 439248 448246 457242 461238 460235 457233 446233
      442234 442231 444230 453227 458226 464226 468224 471220
      472219
 0.25 461180 461176 457175 456172 456167 460161 461155 460151
      458144 456142 454142 446154 440151 441156 450165 449176
      447180 441198 442203 443206 446208 448204 449199 452198
      454191 456186 458183 461180
 0.25 444651 442647 439646 431645 425646 421649 417652 416655
      415661 415667 415673 416677 419681 422685 427685 431682
      437677 440672 441668 442662 443657 444651
 0.25 460106 460096 459091 458083 455075 451065 450060 450051
      450041 450035 448026 448016 450003 448000 444002 432025
      420041 419047 422050 422055 421058 419062 417063 407066
      402066 398067 389069 388072 388075 390080 392080 397080
      400081 404085 406091 407094 407098 405104 401108 396112
      388116 385120 382126 383131 385133 389136 394138 397130
      400127 405127 409124 413125 417130 417136 417146 416152
      413156 411154 410149 406151 403156 407159 410165 414167
      419166 421159 425148 426143 426138 425132 425127 428119
      431115 435112 439112 443114 454112 459109 460106
 0.25 419100 418098 418097 417096 416095 416092 415091 414090
      414089 414090 412091 412092 411094 410096 411098 411099
      412101 413103 414103 416102 417102 418100 419100
 0.25 397210 397206 396203 394202 391201 387199 386198 383196
      379196 379198 380201 381203 383204 386207 390208 392209
      395210 397210
 0.25 409871 410859 407855 404857 400864 397871 395881 394889
      395897 397901 399902 402900 404896 406888 407880 409871
 0.25 378080 379076 378072 377069 376066 374064 371062 368062
      365063 366065 369068 371069 373071 374074 375078 376080
      378080
 0.25 364186 362185 361185 359184 357184 356185 355186 354186
      355187 357187 358187 360187 362187 364187 364186
 0.25 345116 347114 346112 346111 345109 344107 343105 341104
      340104 339106 339107 339109 339111 340113 342115 343116
      345116 345116
 0.25 340100 340098 340097 339095 338094 337093 337092 335092
      334093 333095 333097 334099 334100 336101 338101 339101
      340100
 0.25 311011 313005 313998 311993 308996 305998 302001 300004
      297008 295012 295016 297017 300016 305015 309013 311011
 0.25 299987 297987 296987 297989 299988 299987
 0.25 281082 281081 281080 279078 278076 276076 274077 272079
      272080 272081 272082 272083 273084 275085 277085 279085
      280084 281083 281082
 0.50 485859 485854 485851 484847 483844 480844 478846 477850
      476852 477857 477860 478865 480867 482868 484865 485861
      485859
 0.50 458219 457216 453215 447216 440216 435218 429219 424221
      425234 411231 406234 403236 402240 403243 407244 413244
      420243 427246 430245 432242 433237 434234 439229 444227
      451225 455222 458219
 0.50 476912 475910 474910 473912 474914 475913 476912
 0.50 450239 449238 447238 447239 449239 450239
 0.50 446240 445240 444239 443240 444241 445241 446240
 0.50 437651 435649 430648 426649 422651 420655 419661 422667
      424670 429670 432667 435662 436658 437653 437651
 0.50 433097 432097 432094 431093 430092 429091 428089 428088
      426088 424088 424089 425091 426093 427094 429095 431097
      432097 433097
 0.50 434059 435057 435054 435052 434050 433049 432049 430050
      430051 429054 428054 428056 426058 425060 426063 426064
      428064 430064 430063 431063 433061 433060 434059
 0.50 429108 428105 425104 420105 416109 412109 411107 407106
      405109 402113 406117 410117 413119 419121 422122 424120
      426115 426110 429108
 0.50 404878 404876 404874 403876 404878 404878
 0.50 402883 402880 402883 402883
 1.00 446221 445220 443220 441220 439221 439222 441222 442222
      443221 445221 446221
 1.00 412238 410237 409237 410238 412238 412238 

24HR QP VT 20/12Z
 0.01 471620 476622 478622 479625 485635 488643 487649 488657
      490671 492677 494676 501675 502683 503687 505688 511692
      512699 514704 516719 513727 505751 503756 503763 504769
      505774 504777 504787 503793 500804 499809 497814 496819
      495827 496842 495846 495853 496865 493878 493883 492886
      492894 489906 487911 487919 484931 482942 479956 476966
      474979 473997 472003 472011 471026 471033 472039 482080
      481088 481092 479094 479099 476104 466107 457111 443116
      437115 434114 431115 427125 425131 424138 421145 422150
      425159 428163 430166 432166 412178 404177 395182 391184
      387181 385175 386170 387165 389162 386160 382161 380156
      378151 375149 371147 368142 364139 360139 350139 346138
      344134 336130 333126 332121 329119 325120 320125 317127
      313126 311121 307118 302118 298116 293111 287110 281110
      277111 273110 269108 259110 254108 251105 250097 250089
      249084 246080 244076 243067 242063 242058 246055 251056
      261057 267060 274065 285071 292076 296079 300081 306082
      310084 312088 314090 317090 321087 323080 330075 336073
      348071 352070 356066 355064 353063 348063 339063 329062
      326060 327055 333053 339053 343052 349052 354051 360049
      365047 375043 378041 382038 385036 387031 391025 401009
      403003 404999 403996 399993 397991 394991 377986 359989
      352993 346998 340002 332006 331019 328023 325027 319033
      313035 311034 311031 290029 286026 283022 283016 278014
      276012 274007 274001 275995 264004 251013 242012 236006
      232997 231993 231987 235987 239990 247996 260989 266988
      272988 274989 273992 275994 277991 282985 288981 295976
      301972 307967 315963 323956 328949 329942 329936 332932
      335928 341922 345919 348914 352907 356899 365883
 0.01 365883 366875 368870 367865 369857 372849 372840 370837
      367837 358850 353855 347857 345857 345851 346848 344845
      341838 339834 340833 342826 347820 353806 355802 355796
      356788 358771 359761 361754 367749 369747 372748 377744
      386742 400735 401725 400718 397715 396712 394706 394701
      396698 402692 407687 407679 409669 409660 411652 414647
      423636
 0.01 462329 479331 491329 497324 502317 503307 503300 502294
      502288 500285 495277 490272 485266 480261 473256 470253
      464251 456251 452250 449252 442256 440257 438255 439252
      440246 435239 432235 434231 440229 444225 443220 440217
      437216 433217 429214 427210 426203 424198 420197 412200
      407205 400199 398196 395196 391195 388193 385191 381189
      375185 369183 366181 361180 355180 350182 347185 346191
      345198 342199 339193 337185 334178 333174 337174 338177
      343179 345176 347169 345166 342163 332163 325160 319157
      309154 306153 302154 300154 302159 308165 308175 308181
      309186 312192 316198 321203 324209 330216 341228 345236
      350242 356248 361252 367258 372264 377270 383272 386275
      395277 402277 411278 413281 417283 426286 430287 435291
      438293 441297 444300 446305 448316 450321 453325
 0.01 464176 465172 464169 463161 465154 464148 461143 454141
      452136 447133 443132 442130 438131 434135 433143 434152
      435158 440161 447163 450166 449170 450178 447184 449190
      454189 457184 464176
 0.01 411226 411221 410217 408216 405217 399216 391212 383207
      380205 374203 369203 366207 364211 367214 373220 381227
      385228 390231 400234 405234 408231 411226
 0.01 421124 422121 420119 418118 417118 415119 413119 411119
      410119 409119 408121 408124 409125 411124 413124 414125
      416123 418125 419126 421124
 0.01 418135 417132 414130 410129 407129 403129 401132 402137
      404139 406140 409142 411141 415139 417137 418135
 0.01 336791 335785 333780 327775 322769 317761 314758 309757
      307761 308767 310780 315787 320793 325801 327803 331802
      334793 336791
 0.01 329883 327881 324881 319883 314885 307885 285876 276868
      271859 269853 267844 262833 260829 260824 261817 259813
      262809 264803 266801 270800 272799 271795 266792 262779
      259778 256778 253781 252788 251791 249788 248778 247774
      245772 244768 242767 241765 238764 233764 228767 226771
      227779 229797 231803 232811 233822 233830 235836 238842
      240844 244845 250856 253867 257873 258875 256877 246871
      241869 238869 236871 238876 241881 244885 248887 254891
      260894 271898 271903 273908 277912 282912 287910 290908
      293908 293913 294915 295918 298918 305918 308916 314913
      319909 323905 323896 323890 325887 329883
 0.25 482819 482814 481810 480804 476793 470789 469781 469767
      471754 472741 471731 467719 464715 460715 452718 445720
      437724 435724 432720 431718 428718 425722 418731 417754
      416766 415770 413774 409777 406780 400787 398792 398800
      399805 399809 396821 395826 395832 395843 393854 387872
      383883 379893 373902 369909 359923 354930 348936 342942
      335949 323964 318969 313975 312980 309984 302988 297990
      294993 288002 287006 291008 296010 298013 300014 303014
      307011 313007 326995 333988 341986 347985 351982 358979
      366976 375974 382971 389967 398960 404954 411947 416939
      421934 429930 438926 440925 443929 445933 450936 453940
      455939 460936 462931 466923 469913 471902 473890 474877
      475861 476848 479834 482819
 0.25 459981 458973 456967 450968 447972 441981 433989 421007
      415015 420017 419024 417029 414035 409043 400048 396051
      391056 387060 383061 377060 375055 365054 360057 360067
      362072 365076 369086 372091 376095 382096 386095 390097
      393103 391107 390108 383114 378118 376123 374129 375132
      378135 381135 384139 386143 392145 395145 395142 392139
      390137 390131 392126 400118 402113 407113 411110 412102
      414095 417088 422076 425072 427067 432056 435052 439046
      442040 444034 445027 445023 442022 442019 446015 451004
      459981
 0.25 432689 433686 433684 432682 431682 430684 428685 429687
      430690 431691 432689 432689
 0.25 368124 368122 366121 365120 363120 361121 362123 363124
      364124 366124 368124
 0.25 354120 354115 353113 348106 347101 348096 348091 342087
      338085 334085 332087 331092 331101 330107 335113 342116
      349119 354120
 0.25 286093 284084 282074 275069 268065 259063 253063 250065
      251075 256081 258090 261094 265095 273092 282092 286093
 0.25 247804 245804 243803 241805 241807 241809 242811 243811
      244811 245809 247807 247805 247804
 0.50 466866 455853 454848 455844 457834 459811 459799 459786
      458757 458746 457740 455736 452735 448736 443743 441747
      439754 437763 437776 435785 426799 426805 425810 423818
      421830 421837 421841 420846 416847 414845 414838 414827
      413819 408826 404833 400842 399847 398853 395863 392871
      386886 382895 383901 384905 390908 397901 402893 406889
      408892 407896 403903 400911 396919 393922 387924 381918
      372919 369921 367924 362930 357934 345945 339952 335960
      335977 348975 355970 359969 365968 373967 378967 383965
      395954 401949 405944 416932 431921 436913 439905 441896
      444888 449879 455876 456881 455885 454891 458891 461885
      463878 466866
 0.50 433751 433749 433747 432746 431745 430743 429743 428743
      427743 425746 425748 425751 425753 425755 425758 426760
      427761 429761 430760 431759 432757 433754 433753 433751
 0.50 402056 402055 400054 399054 398055 398057 398058 400058
      401058 402056 402056
 0.50 391119 392116 390116 389116 388116 387118 386119 386120
      384121 384122 382124 381126 382127 383126 384126 385125
      386124 387123 388122 389121 390120 391119
 0.50 387075 386070 382067 378065 375062 372060 367061 366064
      367068 369072 371075 372080 373084 376086 379085 381083
      384079 387075 387075
 0.50 348112 347107 345103 344098 343094 340090 337093 336097
      336102 337106 340111 344113 346114 348112
 0.50 319988 313987 308990 304992 299996 295999 292004 298006
      304008 309005 313000 316996 319990 319988
 0.50 281084 281078 278073 273070 267067 262065 256065 254067
      254071 257075 261080 262084 267088 275088 280086 281084
 1.00 446822 446813 445807 443801 441801 439803 436814 434826
      430850 423870 420875 419880 416891 415897 415901 415914
      415922 418921 424914 430906 432901 434895 437884 438878
      438871 439858 441846 446824 446822
 1.00 378076 379074 378071 378070 377069 376067 376066 375066
      373066 372066 373067 373068 374070 375071 376073 376074
      377076 378076 378076
 1.00 373952 373949 372951 371952 371954 372954 373952 373952
 1.00 278080 278077 274075 272074 269073 267072 264070 262069
      259069 260072 261074 263076 266078 268081 270083 272083
      274083 277082 278080
 1.50 434880 432876 430873 428878 427881 425886 424892 423898
      422902 424905 427902 429899 431895 432890 433883 434880 

24HR QP VT 21/12Z
 0.01 471620 477626 485633 491638 495645 500653 504659 509668
      514678 519686 524699 532725 533741 533747 533755 530766
      528780 519799 507811 505823 505829 504833 504838 503842
      503848 502853 502861 503875 504880 505888 505893 503899
      500907 500911 499913 496926 491939 487948 486952 482955
      471972 462989 457996 452004 442014 433021 428025 426024
      421023 415022 404021 400019 399015 399009 401004 404995
      410987 414979 419968 421966 421962 419958 416957 413957
      410959 396968 388972 382977 375982 367985 362986 357987
      348991 340995 330998 320016 314021 305026 297028 288026
      281026 274024 267018 259013 253007 248006 243003 235998
      232995 230993 230989 233986 237988 244993 251999 257994
      261991 262989 261986 259975 263968 268963 271960 272954
      270946 268939 268934 268928 270925 278923 289922 293923
      299924 308926 315927 318925 321924 322920 321917 318917
      309918 301914 293910 287903 278902 275899 273894 269887
      265878 256866 246849 242838 242832 243829 247827 252826
      257827 259830 264839 269845 274853 278856 283857 286859
      291859 297858 300855 301851 299847 295841 291834 288829
      290824 295823 298825 306828 310831 314831 323831 329830
      333827 342820 350814 357809 362807 365808 368811 368817
      366822 365827 362836 361839 360845 360854 363856 368855
      374855 378852 386846 393837 397830 397825 399820 403811
      408806 411801 418783 418778 420772 423760 430742 435727
      438716 439703 440697 439689 440684 439677 435672 433670
      432673 427677 424682 421685 419684 414675 416665 419661
      420658 430643
 0.01 430643 432642 433640 435641 437641 439640 440640 442637
      443637 445636 447635 448633 449630 448628
 0.01 475334 483333 489330 492326 493320 495306 494300 492295
      489287 479269 476260 474257 474251 476246 477239 478231
      477225 479215 480209 478205 476201 471200 464194 452180
      451178 452175 454174 455171 453169 451171 447181 445185
      445192 446215 442215 441222 449225 453227 451231 447234
      443234 439235 436238 433241 430242 422242 413244 397247
      385244 378246 375249 374255 376264 382271 384274 385279
      393303
 0.01 420116 421112 419113 415113 412111 412108 413096 410091
      409089 405091 404100 400106 394112 392113 392119 397120
      404117 411117 416116 420117 420116
 0.01 407063 407056 406053 406048 403046 394045 390046 385046
      379051 380059 367050 359051 356053 354057 354060 355064
      351068 348065 345056 342050 337049 334049 329050 325052
      333073 320078 312081 312086 313088 319094 325098 330103
      337110 340111 342109 344099 344096 346095 349093 355093
      358092 364092 366090 368088 372088 381099 389096 394096
      396095 400088 401081 403076 403071 405068 407063
 0.01 357877 350873 343875 334876 325877 321878 323881 324884
      322887 324891 329889 332889 335891 337899 343895 347888
      350883 356878 357877
 0.01 282802 281798 280796 275793 271791 265790 264791 262789
      256788 252792 253798 257803 258805 261806 269805 270802
      274802 276803 280803 282802
 0.01 281082 281077 278073 270066 262062 252057 247056 244059
      243065 244070 248079 254087 258090 263092 268093 273092
      279086 281082
 0.25 516714 514703 510692 506685 503687 502692 500701 498711
      497735 493756 492765 491771 489775 487784 487791 490795
      493792 496789 499780 500769 503759 510743 515722 516714
 0.25 494681 489668 487662 484658 471645 464648 458652 455656
      452671 453688 452694 450700 448712 444735 443741 441745
      438748 435753 433761 433769 432778 431785 423806 419815
      413823 410827 407833 402841 395851 389859 375875 363889
      349904 334919 327927 321934 314941 310943 306944 303939
      298941 290947 287951 285956 286963 287968 281991 282997
      285000 289004 293005 298008 305010 309007 311002 317995
      320990 324987 345982 354979 363974 372970 380964 388956
      395948 409933 414926 419917 422913 426909 434903 441894
      448887 454875 457865 463844 459844 459838 463828 466813
      470801 473789 475775 480753 482738 485726 484708 483692
      485688 489687 493684 494681
 0.25 451294 452289 452284 449276 444271 437267 433265 432261
      429259 425258 419259 412261 406262 401261 398263 398267
      405269 408270 411273 414280 416287 418296 423301 426304
      431304 435301 442301 448298 451294
 0.25 355832 355828 353827 349828 347829 345831 343834 342836
      341840 342845 345846 348844 349842 351839 353837 354835
      355832
 0.25 307880 308877 308873 305871 299871 294870 291868 286867
      281868 281872 283875 287877 291879 294882 298883 303883
      307880 307880
 0.50 470729 470721 469715 466712 463713 457716 453724 446742
      441750 439758 435778 431796 428806 424814 420821 414828
      405842 396854 375880 365892 354903 348909 343915 337920
      332928 326933 322939 317945 313950 301959 294965 291968
      289972 290985 292991 291993 295992 299987 303985 306988
      308991 311993 317989 323982 330979 339978 347976 353974
      365965 373958 379953 390942 400931 405924 410918 420903
      437876 441867 445857 447848 449838 452827 455820 461803
      463793 464782 464774 466769 468759 469743 470729
 1.00 459753 460747 457743 452747 448753 445759 442769 442775
      441776 441782 440779 439780 438786 438796 432809 426823
      422832 418839 413845 408849 404850 402852 398858 388870
      379880 370891 365896 360901 355906 351910 341922 337930
      333934 324943 319949 315954 303964 298969 297972 297976
      299978 303976 309973 312977 313980 316983 319980 324975
      330971 338970 344968 351966 356963 362959 367955 378943
      388934 396924 402918 405911 409905 414898 418891 423886
      429873 437861 440853 443844 444823 448807 451799 452790
      452779 451771 453767 456764 458761 459753
 1.50 439818 439813 437812 433816 430827 418848 412857 407866
      405872 402877 400873 401869 400865 392873 384879 376886
      369895 355910 347919 342928 313958 308962 306965 306969
      309970 313971 317976 321975 324972 328970 338965 347962
      353959 358958 362956 367952 381936 388927 390921 392915
      397905 403897 409888 418880 422877 425873 430863 435852
      436845 437837 439827 439818
 2.00 432842 429841 426843 422851 417856 414862 410868 409872
      409877 409880 411877 416872 421866 424860 429853 432845
      432842
 2.00 386922 385918 381918 375923 364936 357942 355943 354937
      360931 365923 370921 373918 377912 379907 377903 377900
      379895 383888 383883 380885 374891 371894 369900 364905
      358910 352917 351921 355920 362914 364913 363917 351930
      345935 342933 340932 333938 327945 316957 310963 310967
      315969 318972 321971 328966 332964 335962 339959 342958
      345960 360952 367947 373941 380932 384927 386922
 3.00 354934 354932 353931 353932 352933 351934 352935 354934
      354934
 3.00 350936 348936 348937 350937 350936
 3.00 325956 325954 325953 323953 323954 321955 320956 319957
      319958 318960 319962 321961 323960 324958 325957 325956